Tulelake once came to the edge of the lake….most of it was drained to create homesteads and the lake is now a fraction of what it once was.

this is a bit high and I’m thinking that it is not a part of the Modoc Indian petroglyphs but something created in more recent years.

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I  visited the petroglyphs late in the day storm clouds had been threatening all day…but it was still an amazing place to photograph.

personally I think the lack of blue in the sky makes  the cliffs even more mysterious!

The petroglyphs run along the bottom of the cliff. Native Americans would canoe to the cliffs and carve their drawings…or prayer/offerings into the soft stone.

I am guessing that this was removed by the park and was carved by modern day graffiti artists vandals.

The cliffs them selves are quite interesting to photograph!

A heart shaped indent!!

The park has put up a fence with barbed wire slanting out….as you can see they have had to add and repair the barbed wire where people insist on trespassing and vandalizing the petroglyphs.

More later

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This is from a hike in the Lava Beds National Monument

A bit about Modoc history from the National Park Service.

Captain Jack’s Stronghold, part of Lava Beds National Monument, is located at the Perez turnoff, off Highway 139 between Tule Lake and Canby, California. The lava beds made an outstanding stronghold for the Modocs because of the rough terrain, rocks that could be used in fortification, and irregular pathways to evade pursuers. The area originally served as a hunting and gathering area. It is now a national monument managed by the National Park Service.

In 1869, Ulysses S. Grant became president of the United States. During his term of office, there existed conflicting philosophies and policies for dealing with Indian affairs. The policies came from three distinct sources: first, Interior Department officials believed that Indian Agents were more important than Indians; second, the War Department believed it was cheaper to feed Indians than to shoot them; and third, private citizens believed that if Indians adopted Christianity, they would change their habits, folkways, and economic system, and then become peaceable and self-reliant. Grant often referred to the third policy as his “Quaker Policy.” Not knowing which of these policies to use, Grant implemented all three. The result was disastrous. Under these conflicting philosophies, the Modoc Indians were forced to move onto the Klamath Indian Reservation on Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon in 1869.

The Klamath Indians believed that they had allowed the Modocs to relocate onto their land. Moreover, they felt that all resources on the land remained theirs by ancestral right. The retention of land rights was a continuing source of agitation between Klamaths and Modocs. In addition, social conditions at Klamath were distressing. Against official orders, army officers gambled with Indians, often winning as many as 20 or 30 horses from Indian men. Army officers at Klamath also quite openly took Indian women, even from their husbands. Once their wives had been prostituted this way, husbands often refused to take them back. Meanwhile, the agents encouraged Indians to become herdsmen and farmers and to live in log cabins instead of in their traditional wickiups.

Captain Jack watched life at Klamath and became convinced that he should live the way his ancestors had. Others in his band agreed with him and so they returned to their land on Lost River. All they wanted was the right to their traditional homeland. Late in 1869, messengers went to Lost River to ask Jack to come back to Klamath to discuss the possibility of his returning permanently to the reservation. He refused to leave Lost River and told the messengers that people would have to come to him if they wanted to talk.

In the spring of 1871, Jack employed a Klamath Indian shaman to care for a sick Modoc child. He paid the fees in advance and a contract was entered into. Among the Modoc, this type of contract was understood as a guarantee to heal. In the event of failure, the doctor’s life was to be forfeited. The sickness of the child was more serious than originally thought, and she died. In accordance with custom, Captain Jack killed the Klamath shaman for inefficiency. Friends of the shaman informed the local sheriff of the murder, and asked for Jack’s arrest. Under the provisions of the “Great Treaty” of 1864, Indians were bound never to murder again; therefore, the sheriff issued a warrant for Jack’s arrest. Jack, meanwhile, traveled to Yreka to see attorney Elisha Steele, who wrote a letter for him to the Indian Agent advising against his arrest on spiritual and cultural grounds. The agent accepted Steele’s advice and dropped the charges against Jack. Settlers in the area nevertheless used the murder charge to discredit Jack.

In November 1872, soldiers and settlers attacked Captain Jack’s camp on Lost River. After the battle, about 50 Modocs fled to the strategic position of the lava beds. Jack lived in the stronghold and successfully defended it for about one year. The first battle for the stronghold took place in January 1873, and the second in April 1873. During the repeated attacks by soldiers and settlers, Captain Jack was able to use the lava beds to his advantage, and only a few people were ever allowed to enter the stronghold to negotiate with him. After several unsuccessful attempts at resolving the whole problem, negotiators sent word back to Washington that the Modocs must be defeated militarily. Captain Jack surrendered on June 1, 1873, and was executed along with five other Modoc men on October 3, 1873. Those remaining in Jack’s band were removed to Indian territory in Oklahoma. In 1909, most surviving Modocs returned to the Klamath Reservation. It is important to note that Jack never signed a treaty, and that he defended the stronghold with only a few Indians while the number of men fighting against him at times exceeded 300.

Looking out over the battlefield

More on Captain Jack’s stronghold to come

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It truly is beautiful! Couldn’t stop thinking about how maybe the lake is filled with serpents though…so couldn’t lose the sense of nervousness and truly relax and enjoy.

Read the previous post below to learn the Tolowa Legend of the Fall.

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In ancient Tolowa mythology, Dead Lake was the scene of the People’s fall from grace. After Baby Sender created the world, a numerous tribe dwelt just inland from Tagian-te, what we today call Point St. George. Many summers they lived in peace. The waters abounded with fish, the forests with game, and the peoples’ hearts were glad. then came the time of sorrow. One day in council the chief became angry at one of the elders and struck him to the ground. This blow led to the destruction of the harmony that had existed. Some of the People began to doubt their leaders, others cried for vengeance. While many remained loyal, their discord allowed one dark-hearted person to practice evil. The heavens covered with menacing clouds of terrible darkness and the wind roared over the shifting sands, blinding everyone. Suddenly a deafening sound broke upon the ears of the people. Like the jaws of a dragon, the earth opened beneath their feet and swallowed them. The gaping abyss opened where Dead Lake is today. The storm broke in wild fury and torrents filled the sepulcher. To this day the Tolowa consider the lake bottomless, infested with enormous serpents, and they will not go there.

This mysterious lake has no inlet, and yet despite the ceaseless outpouring of Sweetwater Creek from it, retains a constant water level. You might carry angelica root or other protection from evil if you visit Dead Lake…

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Buffy Sainte Marie: The Hidden Story of Uranium on Indian Land…
Buffy Sainte Marie: The Hidden Story of Uranium on Indian Land
Posted by Mike E on September 14, 2009

Here are a series of articles, songs and interview on the hidden
history of how the push for uranium mining of the U.S. nuclear
industry led to crimes against the Native People of the Great Plains.
At the center of this story is the Cree singer Buffy Sainte Marie.
Thanks to Doug for suggesting it.

Buffy Sainte Marie: Uranium, an interview and a photograph
by Brenda Norrell

This was first published by the Atlantic Free Press.

It is amazing what can happen when one finds and publishes a
photograph from years ago. The photograph is of Buffy Sainte Marie
singing at Dine’ College. It was taken the day I interviewed Buffy in
1999. She told me about being censored out of the music business by
Lyndon Johnson because of her song “Universal Soldier” during the
Vietnam War. She spoke of the personal hardship it brought, but also
of what happened to others, including Anna Mae Aquash.

Buffy spoke of the occupation of Wounded Knee and the shoot-out with
FBI agents at the Jumping Bull residence at Pine Ridge June 26, 1975.

“That is where Leonard Peltier’s troubles began,” Buffy said. Buffy
said that few people recount the true history of what happened on that
day in history.

“Who recalls that on that day one-eighth of the reservation was
transferred in secret — on that day. It was the part containing
uranium. That is what never seems to be remembered,” Buffy said.

The interview remained censored for seven years by Indian Country
Today, where I served as a staff reporter for the majority of those
years. When Buffy’s interview was finally published by ICT, one
portion still remained censored.

It was the portion about Anna Mae Aquash’s death in relation to the
fact that Pine Ridge was targeted for uranium mining at that time.

Tonight, I received an e-mail message pointing out that on June 26,
1975 Oglala Sioux Chairman and GOON squad leader Dickie Wilson was in
Washington signing away one-eighth of Lakota land for uranium mining.

It was the same day that two young FBI agents were sent into the
Jumping Bull camp. It is the reason that Leonard Peltier has spent his
life in prison.

So, tonight I searched for more about the uranium mining that Pine
Ridge was targeted for. The e-mail came from Jack Cohen-Joppa at
Nuclear Resister.

“Thanks for posting your interview with Buffy Sainte Marie. I was
taken by this comment of hers, particularly: ‘Who recalls that on that
day one-eighth of the reservation was transferred in secret — on that
day. It was the part containing uranium. That is what never seems to
be remembered.’ It is my recollection of this fact (learned from
reading Akwesasne Notes and Rex Weyler’s writing about Peltier, I
think) that led us to include Leonard Peltier on the Nuclear
Resister’s ‘Inside & Out’ list for nearly the entire time we’ve been
publishing (since issue #3, March 1981.) We wrote ‘… On that same day,
June 26, 1975, Pine Ridge Tribal Chairman Dickie Wilson was in
Washington DC, illegally signing away one-eighth of the reservation’s
lands to the Department of Interior. There is uranium on this land…’”

On the web, the John Graham website states:

” .. the US had an eye on developing uranium mining on a portion of
the sacred Black Hills, an area known as Sheep Mountain. This area has
proven to be one of the richest in uranium deposits in the US. The FBI
implemented their counterintellegence operation in Pine Ridge, in
order to weaken and destroy the urban Indian movement, and to
subjugate the traditional Lakotas for once and for all.”

Posted on Russell Means’ Lakotah Republic website:

“In 1975, with his control of the Pine Ridge Reservation in South
Dakota secured by force, Tribal President Wilson set about ceding
uranium-rich areas of the sacred Black Hills to the federal
government. AIM assisted in protecting Pine Ridge’s traditional
families from the constant onslaught of violence, which culminated in
the AIM occupation and government siege of Wounded Knee in the Spring
of 1973. From 1973 to 1976, the people of Pine Ridge lived under the
‘Reign of Terror’­more than 76 Natives, mainly traditional Lakotah and
AIM members, were murdered, primarily by Wilson’s goons, a term coined
by the elderly women who protested against them. Later, in a perverse
play on words, the goons called themselves, ‘Guardians of the Oglala
Nation’ (GOONs).”

Then, I remembered being at Sheep Mountain. We climbed and watched for
helicopters in the night, as Lakotas protected the remains of the
Ghost Dancers at the Stronghold in 2002. In the dark night, the sky
filled with lightning and thunder. All Creation was there at that

Buffy’s lyrics:
“My girlfriend Annie Mae talked about uranium
Her head was filled with bullets and her body dumped
The FBI cut off her hands and told us she’d died of Exposure…
“Bury my heart at Wounded Knee
Deep in the Earth
Cover me with pretty lies
bury my heart at Wounded Knee.”

Finally, I do not know who killed Anna Mae Aquash. But I do know that
two separate groups of witnesses, all local Lakotas on Pine Ridge,
said they were there when it happened at Oglala. Many never came
forward out of fear. But they do identify the same person as the
killer. That person is not any of the men, including Arlo Looking
Cloud now in prison for this crime, who have been charged.

Lakota lands and Indian country are once again targeted for uranium
mining. Buffy has just released a new CD, “Running for the Drum.”

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